Credit Cards

Public Forum
Credit Reports
Apply For Cards
Credit Directory
Credit Articles
Credit Problems
Credit News
Credit Glossary
Credit Laws
Business Credit



Regulation CC
Availability Of Funds And Collection Of Checks - Appendix E

XX. Section 229.34 Warranties

A. 229.34(a) Warranty of Returned Check

     1. This paragraph includes warranties that a returned check, including a notice in lieu of return, was returned by the paying bank, or in the case of a check payable by a bank and payable through another bank, the bank by which the check is payable, within the deadline under the U.C.C. (subject to any claims or defenses under the U.C.C., such as breach of a presentment warranty), Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or Sec. 229.30(c); that the paying or returning bank is authorized to return the check; that the returned check has not been materially altered; and that, in the case of a notice in lieu of return, the original check has not been and will not be returned for payment. The warranty does not include a warranty that the bank complied with the expeditious return requirements of Secs. 229.30(a) and 229.31(a). These warranties do not apply to checks drawn on the United States Treasury, to U.S. Postal Service money orders, or to checks drawn on a state or a unit of general local government that are not payable through or at a bank. (See Sec. 229.42.)

B. 229.34(b) Warranty of Notice of Nonpayment

     1. This paragraph provides for warranties for notices of nonpayment. This warranty does not include a warranty that the notice is accurate and timely under Sec. 229.33. The requirements of Sec. 229.33 that are not covered by the warranty are subject to the liability provisions of Sec. 229.38. These warranties are designed to give the depositary bank more confidence in relying on notices of nonpayment. This paragraph imposes liability on a paying bank that gives notice of nonpayment and then subsequently returns the check. (See Commentary on Sec. 229.33(a).)

C. 229.34(c) Warranty of Settlement Amount, Encoding, and Offset

     1. Paragraph (c)(1) provides that a bank that presents and receives settlement for checks warrants to the paying bank that the settlement it demands (e.g., as noted on the cash letter) equals the total amount of the checks it presents. This paragraph gives the paying bank a warranty claim against the presenting bank for the amount of any excess settlement made on the basis of the amount demanded, plus expenses. If the amount demanded is understated, a paying bank discharges its settlement obligation under U.C.C. 4-301 by paying the amount demanded, but remains liable for the amount by which the demand is understated; the presenting bank is nevertheless liable for expenses in resolving the adjustment.
     2. When checks or returned checks are transferred to a collecting, returning, or depositary bank, the transferor bank is not required to demand settlement, as is required upon presentment to the paying bank. However, often the checks or returned checks will be accompanied by information (such as a cash letter listing) that will indicate the total of the checks or returned checks. Paragraph (c)(2) provides that if the transferor bank includes information indicating the total amount of checks or returned checks transferred, it warrants that the information is correct (i.e., equals the actual total of the items).
     3. Paragraph (c)(3) provides that a bank that presents or transfers a check or returned check warrants the accuracy of the magnetic ink encoding that was placed on the item after issue, and that exists at the time of presentment or transfer, to any bank that subsequently handles the check or returned check. Under U.C.C. 4-209(a), only the encoder (or the encoder and the depositary bank, if the encoder is a customer of the depositary bank) warrants the encoding accuracy, thus any claims on the warranty must be directed to the encoder. Paragraph (c)(3) expands on the U.C.C. by providing that all banks that transfer or present a check or returned check make the encoding warranty. In addition, under the U.C.C., the encoder makes the warranty to subsequent collecting banks and the paying bank, while paragraph (c)(3) provides that the warranty is made to banks in the return chain as well.
     4. A paying bank that settles for an overstated cash letter because of a misencoded check may make a warranty claim against the presenting bank under paragraph (c)(1) (which would require the paying bank to show that the check was part of the overstated cash letter) or an encoding warranty claim under paragraph (c)(3) against the presenting bank or any preceding bank that handled the misencoded check.
     5. Paragraph (c)(4) provides that a paying bank or a depositary bank may set off excess settlement paid to another bank against settlement owed to that bank for checks presented or returned checks received (for which it is the depositary bank) subsequent to the excess settlement.

D. 229.34(d) Damages

     1. This paragraph adopts for the warranties in Sec. 229.34 (a), (b), and (c) the damages provided in U.C.C. 4-207(c) and 4A-506(b). (See definition of interest compensation in Sec. 229.2(oo).)
E. 229.34(e) Tender of Defense

     1. This paragraph adopts for this regulation the vouching-in provisions of U.C.C. 3-119.

F. 229.34(f) Notice of Claim

     1. This paragraph adopts the notice provisions of U.C.C. sections 4-207(d) and 4-208(e). The time limit set forth in this paragraph applies to notices of claims for warranty breaches only. As provided in Sec. 229.38(g), all actions under this section must be brought within one year after the date of the occurrence of the violation involved.

Subpart A - General

Subpart B - Availability of Funds and Disclosure of Funds Availability Policies

Subpart C - Collection of Checks

Appendices A & B

Appendices C & D

Appendix F


Credit And Banking Laws Menu


    Top Of Page



Privacy, Security, And Legal Notices

Copyright 1999 - 2019 Enkephalos Web Design